You Can Be Free

If you are distressed by anything external, the pain is not due to the thing itself, but to your estimate of it; and this you have the power to revoke at any moment.
– Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Roman emperor, stoic philosopher (121 – 180 CE)

As emperor for about two decades of the greatest empire until modern times, Marcus Aurelius knew what it would be like to allow external problems to prey on his mind. Though he was known as one of the five great emperors of Rome, there was always a lineup of powerful men who wanted the job and had the swords and henchmen needed to cause him to lose his life.

Any empire has problems and a great emperor has great problems that prey on his mind day and night. He had the wisdom to separate the operations and vicissitudes of his position from the conducting of his life. Not an easy task, surely.

Considering the number of quotations attributed to him that pass around the internet nearly two millennia after his death, Marcus Aurelius distinguished admirably between himself and his people, his empire and its conquered people and occupied lands, even between himself and life itself.

Thus he knew well that to allow external influences to cause you pain and worry was to adopt the pain and worries of the world. He wouldn’t do it. He respected himself too much.

Look back at your own life for a moment. Remember back ten years. What sorts of things troubled you then? Do they still trouble you now? Almost no one can say their problems of old still trouble them, unless one of their problems is lack of self confidence.

A decade ago my life seemed to be hanging by a thread due to financial problems. Sometimes I wished I could just die so that the pain would go away. Until one day I had coffee with a friend who is a chartered accountant. Just when I was thinking that my next meal might have to come from a soup kitchen, he said “You’re a long way away from being bankrupt, or even from severe financial hardship.”

When I stepped away from my self destructive thoughts after our casual meeting, I could see that by rearranging my finances I could pay all my bills and have a decent life. My fear of becoming poor kept me from doing what I could to improve myself. I had emotionally hog-tied myself and thrown myself into a downward spiral.

That all ended that same day. As Marcus Aurelius said, I used my power to revoke external influences that were ruining my life.

When I consider how far I have come in the past ten years, that very special life lesson that came at a time of great personal crisis in my life may have been one of the best things that has happened to me.

The amazing thing to me is not that life changed for me, because others long before me obviously knew that could happen. The amazing lesson for me was that I had the power to refuse to allow problems I had no control over to affect my life.

Since that time I have developed two different medical syndromes which impact every day and hour of my life. But I know how lucky I am that I don’t have to let them bother me. I emphasize the positive in my life and ignore the negative, at least I refuse to give it any power over me. I am the positive part of me; the negative comes along, but no one cares about it, including me.

I enjoy freedom today that I never had before my great crisis (or previous ones) because I refuse to let problems I can’t control affect me. And the ones I can control, I fix.

Try it. I give you the gift of freedom, if you choose to accept it.

Bill Allin
Turning It Around: Causes and Cures for Today’s Epidemic Social Problems, a book that shows adults how making small changes in their own lives can improve them, the lives of their children and everyone else who knows them. It tells you what you need to know.
Learn more at http://billallin.com

Where Did We Go Wrong? How Can We Fix It?

The ignorant work for their own profit; the wise work for the welfare of the world.
– Bhagavad-Gita, Hindu holy narrative, about 5000 years old

Well, that sounds like fancy-worded crap, doesn’t it?

Until you think about it.

Our world is filled with ignorant people. They aren’t ignorant of their own choice. They simply were never taught to be anything other than ignorant followers. Well, followers and they were kept ignorant of what they missed.

They not only accept that their ignorance is the right way to be, they encourage others to join them. Such as through political parties whose only true power lies with the leader. Such as with religions whose primary purpose is to provide influential jobs for people who crave power over others while giving them back confusing and conflicting nonsense in return.

A large part of the world’s economy revolves around capitalism, whose primary claim to fame and devotion is that people can earn as much money as they want if they work hard enough. In their personal best interest, of course. Though in most cases people end up working for others whose purpose is to get as much work/profit from them for as little compensation as possible.

Capitalism not only makes a few people embarrassingly rich, it is largely responsible for poverty in the world, a condition it maintains by preventing people from getting a good education and developing in way that do not profit the large employers.

Even communism largely failed because its leaders were nothing but closet capitalists once they removed their communist clothing, leather boots and military hats. Their truest devotion was to their own best interests.

Our education systems never teach to what children need in their social and emotional development, only what industries need in their workers/followers, which means developing the intellectual and physical aspects of children. Some schools (a small but increasing number by my calculations) do address the social and emotional needs of their students, but often only after the kids have run into trouble with their parents, the law or themselves. That genie is hard to stuff back into its bottle, but they do it for many kids.

Ignorant people have the impression that because they have great knowledge or skill in one or two specialty fields, they should be respected for their opinions on all subjects. In fact, high school dropouts often know more about topics of general interest that highly paid “experts” away from their field of expertise.

Most cultures of the world encourage their children to become experts in one particular field of study, not to be generalists. So we have a throw-away society because adults don’t know how to fix anything or to build anything for themselves.

Yet a glimmer of hope remains, often below the social radar. We remember the words of Sir Francis Bacon four centuries after he lived. We remember the words of Confucius and The Buddha millennia after they lived. We learn life advice from the Bhagavad-Gita five millennia after it was written. Somewhere adults are learning that there is more to life than being a brainwashed servant to industry, to politicians or to religions.

Wisdom is there for us if we seek it. Unfortunately, it’s not like pizza delivery. No one brings it to our door. We must go looking for it.

Money and high paying jobs are not the keys to happiness or self fulfillment we help our children to believe. The happiest, most fulfilled and most remembered and loved people are those who help others without regard for helping themselves in the process.

These aren’t secrets, though we keep them carefully hidden as if they were.

Bill Allin
‘Turning It Around: Causes and Cures for Today’s Epidemic Social Problems,’ a book to convey the wisdom of the ages to today’s parents and grandparents about raising children according to all their needs, not just those that benefit industry later.
Learn more at http://billallin.com

How You Can Follow Your Bliss

If you do follow your bliss, you put yourself on a kind of track
that has been there all the while waiting for you, and the life you
ought to be living is the one you are living. When you can see that,
you begin to meet people who are in the field of your bliss, and
they open the doors to you. I say, follow your bliss and don’t be
afraid, and doors will open where you didn’t know they were going to
be. If you follow your bliss, doors will open for you that wouldn’t
have opened for anyone else.
– Joseph Campbell

[bliss: noun, a state of extreme happiness]

A small voice inside me wants to add “except if you are physically, intellectually, emotionally or mentally lacking the fundamental ability to achieve your goal.”

Can a person who has no talent for painting follow his bliss into a life of painting, for example? Perhaps yes. Some styles of painting seem to be so simple that a child in primary grades could do them.

Is that possible? Yes. Within each brain is the ability to do something far better than most others. Savants are geniuses in one particular field, while being considered retarded in most others. A painter with no talent for painting in conventional styles may invent a new genre which would make him a creative genius of painting.

We really know very little about the brain functions that come into play in creative processes. Science is studying the brain, but scientists may have problems understanding what they learn because they have trouble appreciating what can’t be hypothesized, tested and proven.

Van Gogh either sold only one painting in his life or none, depending on which story you read. By that standard, he died a failure. And he cut off part of his ear out of shame for embarrassing his friend, which makes him an insane failure to some. He also indulged liberally in absinthe, which would make him an addict.

Yet van Gogh followed his bliss. Failure though he may have been during his lifetime, we now recognize him as one of the great masters of art. During his life, most people thought what he painted was crap. For van Gogh, it was his world.

Music is another field in which a person may get lost and live a good part of a lifetime in a world that many would say doesn’t exist. People who can get “lost in the music” must be mysteries to those who are unable to achieve that state.

Music exists in every culture, in every part of the world. In many of those cultures people enter trance-like states that mimic drug-induced states as their minds leave their immediate surroundings and get folded into the music that becomes a whole separate world for some period of time. This may happen while listening to music or dancing to it.

That blissful state is available to those who only listen to music as well as to those who make it. When your bliss involves music, you will be blissful participating in music at whatever level you choose to make part of your life.

Writers experience a similar phenomenon when they write. They create a world within the scenario they are writing about. To them, the rest of the world disappears like a vapour and reality forms around what their mind produces. Time means nothing. Hunger doesn’t exist. Even a change of ambient temperature from comfortable to extra cold or hot may not be noticed because it plays no role in the created world of the writer’s imagination.

While I can’t speak from personal experience about the world of art, I am abundantly familiar with getting lost in music and writing. I can’t play a musical instrument because of motor problems with my fingers. I would be an excellent conductor (have been on a few notable occasions) except that I must memorize the score because I can’t read as fast as the music must go. But I can listen to and enjoy music with the best of them.

I can also say with some confidence that I can write. This may seem like a small accomplishment, but 20 years ago I was functionally illiterate, barely able to either read or write.

While my reading improved over many years of practice, my writing only improved when in 1999 I found myself with something profound to say, a message to deliver to the world. Since writing my first book I have written on hundreds of topics, each time taking me into a world of that subject as I lose track of anything happening in the “other world.”

Can you follow your bliss? Definitely. Will doors magically open for you, as Joseph Campbell said? Amazingly, they do. Is it easy? Nothing worthwhile is.

When what you are doing is your bliss, hard work is part of the living of that special life that no one else understands but you. Others may appreciate it if they have had similar experiences, but they will never understand it the way you do yourself.

Following your bliss you are always alone, but never lonely. It’s like being surrounded by love. Maybe you can express some of that love in painting, in music or in writing, or maybe it’s just your special place alone. When you are there, your brain cooperates by splashing you with dopamine, its own special feel-good drug.

It’s an addiction when you learn to use it. But one without a hangover or come-down period afterward. No one knows why or how those special doors open to you. Some attribute it to a higher power than us. Those of us with the ability to experience that bliss won’t discover the source of the door opening because that requires us to alienate ourselves from the very thing that makes us whole and worthwhile in order to study it.

So, like many important things in life, bliss remains a mystery.

Bill Allin
Turning it Around: Causes and Cures for Today’s Epidemic Social Problems, a book about how parents and grandparents can guide children so that they can experience the bliss of life rather then the drudgery and fear that most adults live with daily.
Learn more at http://billallin.com

Interesting And Unusual Facts About Snow

Before winter leaves the northern hemisphere I’ll take this opportunity to tell you a bit about the white stuff that has been lying two feet thick in my yard for the past few months.

First of all, by now most of it is ice, either individual crystals or packed solid, though it still looks like snow. What’s on top, having been exposed to the warm sun all day today, is what is known to skiers as corn snow. That’s really lumps of white ice, crystals the size of small kernels of corn.

Ice itself is unusual because it’s not like any other solid. Water expands when it freezes, unlike (almost) every other material that shrinks when it becomes a solid. Ice continues to melt and refreeze down to extremely cold temperatures, which explains many peculiar characteristics that northerners experience, such as it forming around a shovel left in it for a few days.

Snow is technically a mineral, like iron and salt.

The Innu people of northern Canada, Siberia and Greenland do not have dozens of names for snow, as you may have learned in school. In their languages (Innuit and Inuktitut among them) they combine several descriptive words into a single word. For example, “snow that drifts into a wave-like pattern” (eight words in English) would exist as one word in Innuit. So their “many words for snow” are really combinations of words to describe particular snow conditions (on the ground, not falling).

The Algonquian Indians of northern Canada (neighbours of the Innu, but below the tree line) long ago hated them so much that they killed them on sight, especially after the white men supplied them with rifles. Without trees for fuel, the Innu tended to eat the flesh of animals they killed raw, often their only warm food. Because of this the Algonquians called them “Eaters of Raw Flesh,” or Eskimoes in the Algonquian language.

The Innu call themselves Innuit, meaning “the people.” The word is spelled Inuit and Innuit in English, in different places, depending on who does the translation.

Another myth you may have been taught is that each snowflake is individual and unique. Most snowflakes tend to stick together with others into globular crystals. And lots of snow flakes look similar to anyone who takes the trouble to look closely at enough of them. For each one to have a unique shape and composition would be a statistical impossibility.

Most snow crystals–the prettier ones– are very wide but very thin. Though they’re thinner than a piece of paper, they may be up to a few inches wide. The Guinness Book of Records lists the largest snowflake at 15 inches across, a record held in Keogh, Montana, USA, since 1887.

At the centre of each snowflake is a speck of dust, volcanic ash or particle from outer space. Temperature, humidity and wind determine the shape each crystal takes as water vapour freezes on it.

Newly fallen snow is usually about 90 – 95 percent air, which explains its property as a good thermal insulator.

A blizzard with lightning is called thundersnow. They’re rare, but one this winter in our area brought down enough trees that power was out over a wide area for several hours as workers tried to find then repair the many damaged lines and transformers.

You likely have heard that you shouldn’t eat yellow snow. It’s…well, pee. But don’t eat the red snow either. Often called “watermelon snow,” it even smells like the fruit. But it’s colour comes from a species of pigmented algae that grows in ice. Red snow may taste great, but stay close to a toilet for a day or so.

Although avalanche deaths have risen dramatically over the past half century due to the increasing popularity of skiing and snowmobiling–250 deaths in the US over the past decade–it’s not true that shouting, yodeling or other loud sounds will trigger an avalanche.

The most snow in the USA usually falls on Valdez, Alaska. It receives an average of 326 inches of it per year. Never mind that it’s 27 feet of snow, that would turn into 2.7 feet deep of water over everything in the area if it all melted at once. Because of the air within it, snow takes up ten times as much space as liquid water.

Despite how white the North and South Poles are, it snows very little there. The little bit it does snow each year never melts, but it accumulates over decades and blows around a lot, creating blizzard or white-out conditions.

The snow in Antarctica is mostly so hard and flat that it reflects sound as well as light. Researchers have heard human voices talking as much as one mile (1.6 km) away.

A man named “Snowflake” Bentley admired the flakes so much that in 1885 he took closeup pictures of some 5,000 individual flakes. He died of pneumonia. No kidding.

In addition to snow blindness you can get from overexposure of the brightness of snow on the retinas of the eyes, it can also drive people crazy. A little understood kind of hysteria called pibloktoq can cause a variety of symptoms including echolalia (senselessly repeating words overheard from another person) and running around naked in the snow. Note that this is not the same as the Scandinavian ritual following the sauna, despite appearances.

According to one theory of earth history called “snowball earth,” our entire planet was covered with snow and ice some 600 million years ago. Opponents argue that no complex life form could have survived in that environment. However, it’s impossible to know if the oceans were frozen over and how much life could have survived near the water if only the land were covered with snow and ice.

Now I really must chuck some firewood into our wood stove before hypothermia sets in.

Bill Allin
Turning It Around: Causes and Cures for Today’s Epidemic Social Problems, a book about how, what and when to teach children what they need to learn to be competent and confident adults. That’s stuff they rarely learn in school and often not at home.
Learn more at http://billallin.com

How You Can Change The World

It is a mathematical fact that the casting of this pebble from my hand alters the centre of gravity of the universe.
– Thomas Carlyle

While it’s true that the casting of a pebble by one person literally alters the centre of gravity of both the planet he is on and the universe, neither takes notice of the change.

Does that mean the change is insignificant? Not at all. You wouldn’t notice a difference if I threw a stone across a field. But then you are so insensitive that you don’t think about the fact that you are spinning around in space at nearly 1000 miles per hour (1600 kph) as the planet you stand, sit or sleep on rotates on its axis. This in addition to the fact that you race at thousands of times that speed as the earth revolves around the sun each year.

If an asteroid were to head toward earth, with a high likelihood of collision, it could be diverted from its course with a comparatively small tap by a spacecraft sent to change its path. That small tap, over time, would not just divert the asteroid from its collision course with earth, it would fundamentally change its course around the solar system forever. The “small” tap would have to happen soon enough to make a minor course change significant over a great distance so it would avoid hitting us.

Science is learning that, as we search deeper into our past, all the major extinction thresholds were caused by impacts from asteroids or comets. Just last year we learned that what wiped out the wooly mammoth and its giant fellow earth dwellers, as well as the Clovis people that first inhabited North America, likely resulted from the explosion just north of the Great Lakes of an asteroid.some 13,000 years ago. A millennium-long cold spell we know as one of the Ice Ages resulted.

All the known human inhabitants of a large continent were wiped out from starvation because they didn’t have the technology we have today to divert the course of the asteroid. A small tap at the right point of time would have made a world of difference 13,000 years ago.

Small actions that seem insignificant at the time can make enormous differences years later. Jesus of Nazareth likely didn’t know that his words would be revered by nearly a third of the world’s population two millennia later. Before him, Abraham wouldn’t have known that his devotion would be the beginning of great religions that today encompass over half the people of the world.

The point is that doing the right thing when we have the opportunity to do it can make all the difference in the world in years to come. Even if very few people notice it at the time.

The people who are remembered over time are those who began something that changed the course of history by their words or their actions.

True, history books mark the passage of great warriors more than the actions of gentle folk. But perhaps it was the gentle folk who made the great changes through their small actions. Anyone can make war, only the intelligent can manage peace. It was the gentle folk of our past that made us who we are today, rather than primitive warriors and hunter-gatherers,

A few words here, a bump or nudge there can cause huge changes down the road.

The only things that can prevent such changes from happening are those who believe that nothing they do will matter later. Or that life is much worse now than it used to be. Both are clearly, unequivocally, provably wrong.

Do the right thing. It will matter. Knowing that it will matter later will be your reward.

Bill Allin
Turning It Around: Causes and Cures for Today’s Epidemic Social Problems, a book that shows parents and grandparents how to teach children in such ways that they will be able to make significant changes in their lives and their world confidently and competently as adults.
Learn more at http://billallin.com

Gold: Much Different Than You Think

Gold doesn’t do much, it just sits there looking pretty. Not its beauty so much as its inertness gives gold a large part of the value we place on the mineral.

Gold isn’t unique to earth by any means. Our moon, which in the early days after formation of our planet was smashed off it and hardened to become a satellite of its mom, is expected to have large gold deposits.

In 1999, the NEAR spacecraft showed that the asteroid Eros holds more gold than has ever been mined on earth. It’s a bit out of reach so far.

The largest deposits of gold on our own planet–estimated around ten billion tons of it–are in the rock beneath our oceans. However, no one has yet figured out a way to get that gold out cheaply.

Archeologists believe that gold may have been the first mineral ever mined on earth. Decorative gold pieces have been found in Bulgaria that date back 6000 years, roughly the same time period as the Stone Age.

Going back to the seventh century BCE, gold wire was used to attach fake teeth to those who could afford it. Gold fillings for teeth date back at least to the 16th century, likely to ancient Egypt.

The Inca Empire had one of the largest collections of gold known. When King Atahualpa promised to fill a room 22 feet by 18 feet and as high as he could reach with gold as a ransom to his Spanish captors, they accepted. The Spanish got the gold, but killed the king anyway.

Gold mining got started in the United States after Conrad Reed found a lump of it on his father’s North Carolina farm in 1799. The family used the 17 pound lump as a doorstop for three years before a local jeweler spotted it and gave the Reeds $3.50 for it, about one-thousandth of its true value.

Conrad caught on–the lump would be valued around $100,000 today–and decided to begin the first gold mine in the US.

Despite the claim made in the old James Bond thriller Goldfinger that covering a body could cause death through “skin suffocation,” it’s not true. Actress Shirley Eaton had everything but a small section on her abdomen covered with gold paint. Viewers didn’t see the bare patch, but sight of the rest of her covered in gold spurred the imaginations of many young men.

Gold can be pounded to a sheet five millionths of an inch thick. One ounce of it has been drawn into gold wire 50 miles (80 km) long and five micrometers thick, one-tenth the diameter of a human hair.

Because it’s virtually indestructible, it’s estimated that 80 percent of the gold ever mined is still being used.

Gold has been used to wrap around the Apollo lunar lander and as eye protection on the visor shields of astronauts. It’s used as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, via injection. Doctors don’t understand yet why it provides an anti-inflammatory effect.

Alchemy is the name given to the study of how to change base metals into gold. Though alchemists from the days of Shakespeare on failed to produce gold, the Soviets actually created it from lead in one of their nuclear reactors. Sort of. Using radiation, they were able to transform lead nuclei into gold. Too costly for too little of the precious metal though.

Though the mining of gold impacts the environment badly by sending cyanide into waterways and nitrogen and sulphur dioxide into the air, the final product is environmentally green. Thin gold sheets cover the windows of some office and apartment buildings to reflect the sun’s heat in summer and hold heat inside in winter. That’s why the glass seems to be gold coloured.

Australian researchers have found microorganisms that actually consume trace amounts of gold, then poop it back out as larger nuggets. Mining companies want to use the method to replace cyanide.

The USA has the world’s largest hoard of gold bricks, but India has the largest amount of gold because of its many decorative uses. About 20 percent of finished gold around today is used as decorative thread in Indian saris.

At this point, finding new sources of gold takes enormous resources. Asteroids, the moon and the ocean floor are too costly to mine. And Indian ladies are decidedly reluctant to be de-frocked just to produce more gold trinkets.

If only someone had thought to ask Goldfinger how he accumulated his gold fortune.

Bill Allin
Turning It Around: Causes and Cures for Today’s Epidemic Social Problems, a book for adults to learn how their problems of today began and how to help their children avoid having the same or other life problems.
Learn more at
http://billallin.com (Primary source: Discover, December 2007)

Gold: Much Different Than You Think

Gold doesn’t do much, it just sits there looking pretty. Not its beauty so much as its inertness gives gold a large part of the value we place on the mineral.

Gold isn’t unique to earth by any means. Our moon, which in the early days after formation of our planet was smashed off it and hardened to become a satellite of its mom, is expected to have large gold deposits.

In 1999, the NEAR spacecraft showed that the asteroid Eros holds more gold than has ever been mined on earth. It’s a bit out of reach so far.

The largest deposits of gold on our own planet–estimated around ten billion tons of it–are in the rock beneath our oceans. However, no one has yet figured out a way to get that gold out cheaply.

Archeologists believe that gold may have been the first mineral ever mined on earth. Decorative gold pieces have been found in Bulgaria that date back 6000 years, roughly the same time period as the Stone Age.

Going back to the seventh century BCE, gold wire was used to attach fake teeth to those who could afford it. Gold fillings for teeth date back at least to the 16th century, likely to ancient Egypt.

The Inca Empire had one of the largest collections of gold known. When King Atahualpa promised to fill a room 22 feet by 18 feet and as high as he could reach with gold as a ransom to his Spanish captors, they accepted. The Spanish got the gold, but killed the king anyway.

Gold mining got started in the United States after Conrad Reed found a lump of it on his father’s North Carolina farm in 1799. The family used the 17 pound lump as a doorstop for three years before a local jeweler spotted it and gave the Reeds $3.50 for it, about one-thousandth of its true value.

Conrad caught on–the lump would be valued around $100,000 today–and decided to begin the first gold mine in the US.

Despite the claim made in the old James Bond thriller Goldfinger that covering a body could cause death through “skin suffocation,” it’s not true. Actress Shirley Eaton had everything but a small section on her abdomen covered with gold paint. Viewers didn’t see the bare patch, but sight of the rest of her covered in gold spurred the imaginations of many young men.

Gold can be pounded to a sheet five millionths of an inch thick. One ounce of it has been drawn into gold wire 50 miles (80 km) long and five micrometers thick, one-tenth the diameter of a human hair.

Because it’s virtually indestructible, it’s estimated that 80 percent of the gold ever mined is still being used.

Gold has been used to wrap around the Apollo lunar lander and as eye protection on the visor shields of astronauts. It’s used as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, via injection. Doctors don’t understand yet why it provides an anti-inflammatory effect.

Alchemy is the name given to the study of how to change base metals into gold. Though alchemists from the days of Shakespeare on failed to produce gold, the Soviets actually created it from lead in one of their nuclear reactors. Sort of. Using radiation, they were able to transform lead nuclei into gold. Too costly for too little of the precious metal though.

Though the mining of gold impacts the environment badly by sending cyanide into waterways and nitrogen and sulphur dioxide into the air, the final product is environmentally green. Thin gold sheets cover the windows of some office and apartment buildings to reflect the sun’s heat in summer and hold heat inside in winter. That’s why the glass seems to be gold coloured.

Australian researchers have found microorganisms that actually consume trace amounts of gold, then poop it back out as larger nuggets. Mining companies want to use the method to replace cyanide.

The USA has the world’s largest hoard of gold bricks, but India has the largest amount of gold because of its many decorative uses. About 20 percent of finished gold around today is used as decorative thread in Indian saris.

At this point, finding new sources of gold takes enormous resources. Asteroids, the moon and the ocean floor are too costly to mine. And Indian ladies are decidedly reluctant to be de-frocked just to produce more gold trinkets.

If only someone had thought to ask Goldfinger how he accumulated his gold fortune.

Bill Allin
Turning It Around: Causes and Cures for Today’s Epidemic Social Problems, a book for adults to learn how their problems of today began and how to help their children avoid having the same or other life problems.
Learn more at http://billallin.com